Токсичность лантана и церия в условиях биотеста с Луком репчатым (Allium cepa)

А. Д. Котельникова1,2, И. А. Фастовец1,2, О. Б. Рогова1, В. В. Столбова2

1Почвенный институт им. В.В. Докучаева, Россия, 119017, Москва, Пыжёвский пер., 7
2МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова, Россия, 119991, Москва, ул. Ленинские горы, 1

Поступление редкоземельных элементов в почву сопряжено с определенными экологическими рисками, а отсутствие нормативов содержания в объектах окружающей среды вызывает необходимость оценки влияния на биоту. Использование биотестов позволяет не только выявить потенциальную интегральную токсичность по изменению ростовых показателей, но также охарактеризовать влияние исследуемого вещества на генетический аппарат клеток тест-объекта. В настоящем исследовании использовали тест-систему с луком репчатым (Allium cepa L.) для характеристики интегральной фитотоксичности, а также цито- и генотоксичности хлоридов лантана и церия. Тестировали следующие концентрации лантана: 0 (контроль), 10, 20, 50, 100 и 200 мг/л; для церия испытывали несколько меньшие дозы: 0 (контроль), 2, 5, 10, 30 и 50 мг/л. Показано значимое уменьшение доли делящихся клеток (митотического индекса) для всех исследованных концентраций лантана и концентраций церия 5 мг/л и более. Частота встречаемости патологий митоза по сравнению с контролем была значимо больше для концентраций 50 мг/л при тестировании растворов лантана и церия, что свидетельствует о генотоксичности этих редкоземельных элементов. Уменьшение митотического индекса сопровождалось уменьшением длины корня лука в биотестах как с лантаном, так и с церием.

Ключевые слова: редкоземельные элементы, биотестирование, фитотоксичность, генотоксичность

DOI10.19047/0136-1694-2017-89-54-67

Ссылки для цитирования

Котельникова А. Д., Фастовец И. А., Рогова О. Б., Столбова В. В. Токсичность лантана и церия в условиях биотеста с луком репчатым (Allium cepa) // Бюл. Почв. ин-та им. В.В. Докучаева. 2017. Вып. 89. С. 54-67. doi: 10.19047/0136-1694-2017-89-54-67

Kotelnikova A. D., Fastovets I.A., Rogova O.B., Stolbova V.V. The toxicity of lanthanum and cerium in conditions of biotest with Allium cepa, Byulleten Pochvennogo instituta im. V.V. Dokuchaeva, 2017, Vol. 89, pp. 54-67. doi: 10.19047/0136-1694-2017-89-54-67


THE TOXICITY OF LANTHANUM AND CERIUM IN CONDITIONS OF BIOTEST WITH ALLIUM CEPA

A. D. Kotelnikova1,2, I. A. Fastovets1,2, O. B. Rogova1 and V. V. Stolbova2

1V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, Russia, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii per. 7-2
2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1

The influx of rare-earth elements into the soil is associated with ecological risks. The absence of regulatory standards for these elements in the environment makes it necessary to assess their impact on the biota. The use of biotests may be helpful not only in revealing potential integral toxicity according to the changes in growth indices, but also in characterizing the impact of the studied agent on the genetic apparatus of test object cells. In this study we used the test system with bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) to сharacterize integral phytotoxicity, and also cyto- and genotoxicity of lanthanum and cerium chlorides. The following lanthanum concentrations were tested: 0 (control), 2, 5, 10, 30 and 50 mg/l. A significant decrease in the proportion of dividing cells (mitotic index) for all of the investigated concentrations of lanthanum was shown, and cerium was found to decrease mitotic index at concentrations 5 mg/l and higher. The frequency of mitosis pathologies was significantly higher compared to the control group for lanthanum and cerium at concentration 50 mg/l, which suggests possible genotoxicity of these rare earth elements. The decrease in mitotic index was accompanied by inhibited onion root elongation in biotests with both lanthanum and cerium.

Keywords: rare-earth elements, biotests, phytotoxicity, genotoxicity


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