N. B. Khitrov
Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, Pyzhevskiy per. 7, Moscow 119017, Russia
The structure of gilgai soil complexes is a combination of 3-D units complimenting, entering and/or crossing each other and having different morphological features: colour, slickensides, dispersed calcium carbonate, calcareous and gypsum pedofeatures, eluvial (leaching) and solonetzic features. The 3-D units with these morphological features are described. Nine variations in the vertical-lateral morphological structure of gilgai soil complexes are identified on the basis of reviewing literature on Vertisols of tropics and subtropics. Thirteen variations of gilgai soil complexes are identified on the basis of observations on Vertisols within the East European Plain.
Key words: bowl-shaped structures, diapiric structures, slickensides, calcium carbonate, eluvial features.
For citation: Khitrov N.B. Variations in the lateral morphological differentiation of gilgai soil complexes, Byulleten Pochvennogo instituta im. V.V. Dokuchaeva, 2016, Vol. 86, pp. 124-133. doi: 10.19047/0136-1694-2016-86-124-133
1. R. Dudal and H. Eswaran, “Distribution, properties, and classification of Vertisols,” In: Vertisols: Their Distribution, Properties, Classification, and Management,(Eds) L.P. Wilding and R. Puentes (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 1988).
2. Guidelines for Soil Description (FAO, Rome, 2006).
3. E. G. Hallsworth, G. K. Robertson and F. R. Gibbons, “Studies in pedogenesis in New South Wales. VII. The “Gilgai” soils”, J. Soil Sci. 6 (1), 1–31 (1955).
4. IUSS Working Group WRB. 2015. World reference base for soil resources 2014, update 2015 International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. Word Soil Resources Report 106. FAO. Rome.
5. N. B. Khitrov, “Properties and regimes of vertisols with gilgai microtopography (a review),” Eurasian Soil Science, 49 (3), 257–271 (2016).
6. N. B. Khitrov, Genesis, Diagnostics, Properties, and Functioning of Clay Swelling Soils in the Central Cis-Caucasus (Dokuchaev Soil Science Institutes, Moscow, 2003) [in Russian].
7. N. B. Khitrov and L. V. Rogovneva, “Vertisols and vertic soils of the Middle and Lower Volga regions,” Eurasian Soil Science, 47 (12), 1167–1186 (2014).
8. N. Khitrov, L. Rogovneva, Y. Cheverdin, D. Rukhovich and V. Vlasenko, “Types and distribution of soil cover patterns with gilgai topography in Russia”, In:International Soil Science Congress on “Soil Science in International Year of Soils 2015”, Sochi, Russia. Article book, 206–208 (2015).
9. N. B. Khitrov, V. P. Vlasenko, and L. V. Rogovneva, “Statistic indices for bowl-and diapir-like morphostructures of vertisols in Vorontsovo depression padi”,Byulleten Pochvennogo instituta im. V.V. Dokuchaeva, 77, 3–28 (2015).
10. E. A. Kornblyum, I. S. Mikhailov, N. A. Nogina and V. O. Targulian, Basic Charts for Morphological Description of Soils. Field Manual. (Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, Moscow, 1982) [in Russian].
11. I. R. Paton, “Origin and terminology for gilgai in Australia,” Geoderma, 11, 221–242 (1974).
12. L. P. Wilding, D. Williams, W. Miller, T. Cook and H. Eswaran, “Close interval spatial variability of Vertisols: a case study in Texas” In: Proceedings of the Sixth Soil Correlation Meeting (ISCOM). Characterization, Classification and Utilization of Cold Aridisols and Vertisols. J.M. Kimble (ed.), USDA Soil Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE. 232–247 (1990).