Бюллетень Почвенного института №68

декабрь 2011 г


Гумусовые и карбонатные аккумуляции как диагностические критерии  в черноземах Восточной Европы

И. И. Лебедева

Humus-accumulative horizons and carbonate features as diagnostic criteria for chernozems of Eastern Europe

I. I. Lebedeva

The absence of regularities in the spatial patterns of quantitative parameters of humus accumulation, depth of effervescence, and its reasons are discussed. Consequently, both groups of characteristics are regarded to be unsuitable as criteria for discriminating the typical, ordinary, and southern chernozems. The proposal is discussed to specify these subtypes of chernozems in accordance with their qualitative properties, namely, the carbonate profiles that adequately reflect the particular features of current hydrological regimes.

Key words: chernozems, humus, carbonates, humus horizon; carbonate profile; hydrological profile.

Эволюция глинистого материала гумусового горизонта черноземов при мелиорации солонцов землеванием

Н. П. Чижикова, Н. Б. Хитров, Ю. И. Чевердин

Evolution of clay material from the humus horizon of chernozem in the course of solonetz amelioration

N. P. Chizhikova,N.B. Khitrov, Yu. I. Cheverdin

The objective of research is to study changes in fine dispersed components of soils of hydromorphic solonetz complexes and in the material spread on them as taken from the humus horizon of chernozems for 50 years of their development under post-meliorative and post-agrogenic conditions.

Due to solonetz process (ESP 5-15% и ECse < 2dS/m) the well aggregated material of chernozems starts transforming into the peptized state being changed into the texture-differentiated profile of solonetzic soil.

The water-peptized clay contains irregular interstratified mica-smectite formations with a higher amount of smectite packets, hydromica, kaolinite, chlorite and fine-dispersed quartz. The peculiar feature for upper horizons of solonetz complexes is the increased content of fine dispersed quartz. The same composition of mineral components remains in aggregated clays but the share of hydromicas becomes higher, the interstratified mica-smectites assume more regular structure thanks to its slightly expressed disarrangement in crystallites. The share of fine-dispersed quartz in the fraction (<1mkm) of aggregated clay is lower as compared to fraction of water-peptized clay being similar to that in the parent material represented by loess-like loam.

This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Reseaech, project no. 08-04-01195.

Key words: solonetz amelioration, solonetz process, clay peptization, clay aggregation, irregular interstratified mica-smectite formations, texture-differentiation of soil profile.

Изменение микростроения солонцов при орошении

Т. В. Турсина, И. В. Лукьянов

Changes in the fabric of a solonetz under irrigation describing

T. V. Tursina, I. V. Lukyanov

Changes in microstructure of steppe and meadow-steppe solonetz of Precacpian plain one elevation of microrelief in 3-component soil complex in cheznet zone (Kislovskaya irrigated system) under irrigation, cutting of microrelief and adding of gypsum. Loss of aggregates humus material during cutting of solonetz reason of low structural perperties of irrigated solonetz. Their cultivation is required chemical melioration – adding of gypsum.

Key words: fabric of solonetz, fine dispersed materiel, gypsum, irrigation.

Загрязнение нефтью почв таежной зоны Западной Сибири

Н. А. Аветов, Е. А. Шишконакова

Oil contamination of soils in taiga zone of West Siberia

N. A. Avetov, E. A. Shishkonakova

The article describes oil intake, distribution and transformation in soils of taiga zone in the borders of Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug, West Siberia. The information on properties of contaminated soils (khemozems) is presented. The soil cover patterns of polluted areas are considered. Phytomelioration is pointed out as one of the effective methods of soil reclamation.

Key words: oil contamination, taiga soils, khemozems.

Об опасных тяжелых металлах/металлоидах в почвах

Ю. Н. Водяницкий


Yu. N. Vodyanitskii

According modern eco-toxicological data of Dutch ecologists dangerous heavy metals/metalloids can be ranked into the following row: Se > Tl > Sb > Cd > V > Hg > Ni > Cu > Cr > As > Ba. The row strongly differ from the similar row used in Russia in accordance with the State Standard, where danger of Pb, Zn, Со in soils is overestimated, and danger of V, Sb, Ba underestimated. It seems necessary to include into the list of dangerous metals Tl, and Cr. Heavy metals/metalloids content in soils is investigated unevenly. 11 from them (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, As, Mn, Co, Hg, Se) are more investigated, and the rest 46 – less investigated in spite of the fact that Ba, V, Tl are dangerous. The information about content of these elements in soils of Russia is very scarce, and soil ecologist must concentrate attention on investigations of these elements.

Key words: soil, heavy metals, heavy metalloids, anthropogenic pollution