Бюллетень Почвенного института №66 | Почвенный институт им. В.В. Докучаева

Бюллетень Почвенного института №66

декабрь 2010 г.
Содержание

Дополнение содержания государственной почвенной карты информацией о генезисе почвообразующих пород и гранулометрическом составе почв
М. С. Симакова, Д. И. Рухович, Е. В. Вильчевская, Н. В. Калинина, Л. Г. Колесникова, П. В. Королева

THE CONTENT OF STATE SOIL MAP SUPPLEMENTED BY INFORMATION ON GENESIS OF PARENT MATERIALS AND SOIL TEXTURE

M.S. Simakova, D.I. Rukhovich, Ye.V. Vilchevskaya, N.V. Kalinina, L.G. Kolesnikova, P.V. Koroleva

V.V.Dokuchav Soil Science Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii 7

 The first stage of the work related to elaborating the digital version of State soil map is substantiated to eliminate differences in reflecting the genesis of parent materials and texture of soils and rocks in various lists of this map. The bulk of cartographic and literature sources was summarized and comprehensively analyzed for a better understanding the genesis of the parent material. It seemed reasonable to conclude that the texture of parent materials and soils should be reflected separately on the map. In the given map the soil texture is shown owing to the C horizon  characterizing the deposits, from which the soils have been derived. In the other maps the soil texture is described as characterized by the upper horizons. Soils with the texture-differentiated profile are discussed, being exemplified by definite analytical data to show a pathway for solving this problem. The particle size composition of soils with texture-undifferentiated profile is identical to that of parent materials.

Key words: soil map, parent material, texture


Генезис, география наноскопического вещества и его значение для плодородия и экологического функционирования почв
Б. П. Градусов

GENESIS, GEOGRAPHY OF NANOSCOPIC SUBSTANCE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO FERTILITY AND ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING OF SOILS

B.P. Gradusov

V.V.Dokuchav Soil Science Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii 7

Under discussion are questions regarding to concepts and methods of nanoscopic research in soil science. To them we relate the concept of nanoscopic particles, specific features of nanoscopic substances, genesis and geography of numerous minerals with clearly expressed nanoscopic properties in soil. A number of regularities is identified in distribution of nanoscopic minerals in soils of Russia and adjacent countries. It is shown that the main soil types are quite different with nanoscopic point of view. It is worth of note that methods of nanoscopic research in soil science are promising just as the use of nano-sized minerals for improving the productivity of lands including  the production of fertilizers, soil rehabilitation as well as the estimation of ecological situation and projecting of soil protection measures.

Key words: nanoscopic particles, clay minerals, mineralogical composition


Исследование палеоклимата горных экосистем с помощью метода комплексного группового биологического анализа
М. И. Скрипникова, О. Н. Успенская

PALEOCLIMATE OF MOUNTAIN SYSTEMS STUDIED BY THE METHOD OF COMPLEX GROUP BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

M.I. Skripnikova1, O.N. Uspenskaya2

1V.V.Dokuchav Soil Science Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii 7
2
Russian Institute of Vegetable Growing, 140153, Moscow region., Ramensky district, v.Vereya, bld.500

Under consideration is the methodology of reconstructing the climate changes in different periods of Holocene using the method of complex group biological analysis of peat-sapropel deposits. The opportunities of this method are demonstrated by reconstruction of the climate in Carpathiens and Altai mountain systems. For Skolevski Beskid in Carpathiens the paleoclimate scenario was elaborated with the aim at specifying climatic conditions existed in periods of large-scale slope terracing. For Western Altai the climatic paleoscenario was aimed to forecast the conservation of tumuli, which have been formed in the Bronze time with the permafrost within their construction.

Key words: paleoclimate, climate evolution, biodiversity, terrace systems.

Влияние агрометеорологических условий на изменение свойств мелиорированных солонцов сухостепной зоны

И. Н. Любимова, А. В. Аксенов, А. В. Горобец

THE EFEECT OF AGROMETEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS ON CHANGES IN THE PROPERTIES OF IMPROVED SOLONETZES IN THE DRY STEPPE ZONE

I.N. Lyubimova, A.V. Aksenov, A.V. Gorobets

V V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii, 7

Effects of weather conditions are evaluated to show changes in the content of soluble salts, exchangeable bases and humus in the improved automorphic carbonate-rich solonetz soils under different types of amelioration within the dry steppe zone. The investigation results give evidence that the quickly changing properties such as the content of soluble salts and the composition of exchangeable cations are predominantly affected by the weather conditions. One should indicate that there is no reliable correlation between the humus content and weather conditions. Trend and share of influence exerted by weather conditions vary for different properties of improved solonetz soils but in the most cases it is estimated as less than 30% from the influence share of the other factors.

Key words: solonetz, amelioration, dynamics of agrometeorological conditions, salt content,  composition of exchangeable cations,  humus content

Тенденции развития химии почв
Ю. Н. Водяницкий

TENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOIL CHEMISTRY

Yu. N. Vodyanitsky

V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii, 7

In modern soil chemistry 4 basic tends are becoming of great importance including (1) chemistry of the organic matter, (2) biochemical processes in soils, (3) chemical foundations of soil protection and (4) the study of soils as a chemical membrane and pool of chemical elements. The ever-increasing interest to the study of the organic matter and the role of soil as a component of the environment reflects pragmatic tends in the modern soil chemistry. Achievements attained in soil chemistry now are explained by employing new specific methods of analysis and physical methods in particular. It concerns, in the first place, identifying individual compounds of chemical elements in soils using sinchrotron X-ray techniques.

Key words: soil chemistry, organic matter, biochemical processes, soil protection, pool of chemical elements


Использование рентгенорадиометрического метода для определения содержания легких лантанидов в почвах
А. Т. Савичев, Ю. Н. Водяницкий

X-RAY RADIOMETRIC METHOD TO DETERMINE THE CONTENT OF LIGHT LANTANIDES IN SOIL

A.T. Savichev1, Yu. N. Vodyanitsky2

1Geological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences,  2V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute of Russian   Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii, 7

A method  of X-ray radiometric analysis with using 141Am as a variety of X-ray fluorescence energodispersion has been elaborated to identify lantanides including praseodymium, neodymium and samarium. The given method allows excluding the distorted impact of barium and lanthanum on lines of praseodymium and neodymium as well as the impact of lanthanum and selenium on lines of samarium. When using this method, it is possible to obtain numerous data about the geochemistry of light lantanides in soils.

Key words: X-ray radiometric energodispersion analysis, soil, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium

 

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