Бюллетень Почвенного института №69 | Почвенный институт им. В.В. Докучаева

Бюллетень Почвенного института №69

июнь 2012

Содержание

Об информационном подходе в классификации почв

В. А. Рожков

ON AN INFORMATION APPROACH TO SOIL CLASSIFICATION

Under discussion are concepts of a new universal scientific discipline – informaciology, its principles, methods and approaches to elaborating the soil classifications. A formalized definition of the classification concept is given as a knowledge-based one in information systems. From viewpoint of classiology the concept of classification is of two kinds by nature being subdivided into taxonomy and meronomy. Taxonomy assumes the relationship between any classification object and a lot formed by it, whereas meronomy – the relationship of the total object to its parts. Accordingly relationships of equivalence in taxonomy and tolerance in meronomy are used. A structural-functional scheme of the system is presented to realize an information approach to soil classification. 

Key words: informaciology, informatics, classiology, soil classification.


Особенности почвенного покрова тектонически активных зон Земного шара

И.С. Михайлов

Обсуждаются понятия новой универсальной научной дисципли-
ны – информациологии и приложение ее принципов, методов и
подхода к построению почвенных классификаций. Дается форма-
лизованное определение понятия классификации, как базы знаний
в информационных системах. С точки зрения классиологии поня-
тие классификации обладает двойственным характером, разделя-
ясь на таксономию и мерономию. Первое предполагает отношения
между объектом классификации и образуемого ими множества, а
второе – отношение между целым и частями самого объекта. Со-
ответственно используются отношения эквивалентности в таксо-
номии и толерантности в мерономии. Приведена структурно-
функциональная схема системы для практической реализации ин-
формационного подхода к классификации почв.
Ключевые слова: инфор
PECULIARITIES OF THE SOIL COVER WITHIN THE EARTH’S TECTONICALLY ACTIVE ZONES
 
Under study are endogenic and exogenic pseudosoil formations within the tectonically active regions of the Earth. Red-colored clayey formations, saprolites, carbonate crusts and horizons, salt formations are considered as endogenic formations while mud flows and cryogenic formations – as exogenic ones. Several formations in tectonically active regions, which have been related to the soil cover prove to be pseudosoil formations.
Ю. Н. Водяницкий, А. Т. Савичев,  Н. А. Аветов, С. Я. Трофимов, С. А. Козлов
 
GEOCHEMICAL PECULIARITIES OF TOP PEAT IN MIDDLE TAIGA OF THE PRE-OB REGION
The top peat in middle taiga of the Pre-Ob region represents a highly negative geochemical anomaly of several chemical elements as compared to that in southern taiga located in the middle and upper parts of this region. Obviously, due to close location of mountain systems (Altai, Salair ridge, Kuznetsk Alatau) and the aerial dust transfer the top peat in southern taiga is enriched with the major metals; this process is unachievable for the remote middle part of the Pre-Ob region. 
Key words: top peat, middle taiga, chemical composition of soils
О. В. Кутовая
CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMUS AND COPROLITES OF EATHWORMS IN AGRO-SODDY PODZOLIC SOILS
It has been experimentally established that coprolites of earthworms have an increased content of carbon (33-51%) and nitrogen (3-50%) as
compared to the surrounding soil. However, both Cha and Cfa are extracted by alkaline and pyrophosphate-alkaline fractions from coprolites
to a lesser extent. Probably, it is conditioned by specific character of humus substances in coprolites and their connection with the mineral
part of the soil.
Key words: humic acids, coprolites, earthworms.

Н. П. Чижикова, И. А. Гуров
MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITION OF ELUVIAL-GLEY ZHELTOZEMS AS EXEMPLIFIED BY SOILS OF THE ARBORETUM IN SOCHI CITY
The composition of fine-dispersed fractions (<1, 1–5 5–10 mkm) extracted from zheltozems located in the northern part of humidsubtropical
zone in the North-Western Caucasus is represented by clay and accompanying minerals, which have been fixed earlier in weathering
crusts and their derivates characteristic of the given natural zone. The clay fraction consists of a set of mixed-layer minerals, in which
chlorite-vermiculite and mica-smectite are dominating within the soil profile. Hydromicas of dioctahedric type and kaolinite are subordinates.
In the course of soil formation the profile became differentiated according to the content of the fraction < 1 mkm and the composition of minerals in it. In the eluvial part of the profile the individual smectite is absent but hydromicas, kaolinite, chlorite-vermiculite reveal accumulation. Among destruction products the lepidocrocite is segregated
in the AYEL horizon to a considerable extent.. The 1–5, 5–10 mkm fractions are evenly distributed, quartz is dominated.
Key words: fine-dispersed fraction, zheltozem, mixed-layer minerals
А. М. Гребенников
OF THE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GREEN MANURE OF BINARY MIXTURES ON CHERNOZEM
It is shown that the different composition of green manure in binary mixtures of sunflower, buckwheat and soybean can exert uneven effect
on a set of soil properties which are vital for the fertility. The method is considered to construct the comparison variants for assessing the effects of mixing the green manure crops in agrocommunities on agrochemical, agrophysical and microbiological properties of soils. The
close relationship was found between changes in these properties and indicators of productivity of green manure agrocommunities and the efficient soil fertility. Among the binary mixtures the soy + sunflower, buckwheat varieties Winged + sunflower and buckwheat varieties Demetra + sunflower are most promising for improving the fertility of chernozems.
Key words: monocenosis, green manure agrocommunities, mixing factor(agrocenosis effect), properties of soils, fertility.

Изменения свойств солонцов Приергенинской равнины Калмыкии  в условиях лесомелиорации в результате длительного антропогенного воздействия

 А. Ф. Новикова, М. В. Конюшкова,  А. А. Контобойцева

HUMAN-INDUCED CHANGES IN PROPERTIES OF SOLONETZ SOILS UNDER CONDITIONS OF FOREST AMELIORATION IN PRE-ERGENI PLAIN OF KALMYKIA 

Under study are changes in morphological, chemical and physicochemical properties of solonetz soils resulted from prolonged anthropogenic effects (more than 55 years) under conditions of forest amelioration in Pre-Ergeni plain of Kalmykia. The current status of anthropogenically-modified solonetz soils is conditioned by dissolutionsalinization processes taken place in soils due to irrigation, being after that affected by forest amelioration and the aftereffect of deep meliorative tillages to a lesser extent. As a result of forestation the soils became moistened thanks to snow accumulation, the evaporation decreased thanks to shading of the soil surface. The root system improved the water permeability and produced CO2 in order to increase the dissolution of carbonates in soil. Dissolution of the upper 50-65 cm layer of anthropogenically-modified soilonetz soils remains for a long period of time. General trend in the development of solonetz soils under forest plantations is directed to dissolving and decreasing the content of absorbedsodium in plough and subsurface horizons.

Key words: solonetz soils, anthropogenically-modified solonetzes, dissolution, forest amelioration.