Бюллетень Почвенного института №67 | Почвенный институт им. В.В. Докучаева

Бюллетень Почвенного института №67

июнь 2011 г.

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Нормативы изменения физических свойств почв степной, сухостепной, полупустынной зон европейской территории России
И. В. Кузнецова, Н. А. Азовцева, А. Г. Бондарев

STANDARDS OF CHANGES IN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS IN STEPPE, DRY STEPPE, SEMIDESERT ZONES OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA

I.V. Kuznetsova, N.A. Azovtseva, A.G. Bondarev

V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii., 7

Standards of man-made changes in physical properties of arable chernozems within the steppe, chestnut soils within the dry steppe and light-chestnut soils within the desert-steppe zone of European Russia have been elaborated. Optimal permissible and critical values of physical properties were determined as a threshold level for the plant growth and development. Expert estimates are given for every soil-natural zone to show distribution of soils with optimal permissible and critical values for the main soil physical properties. It is worth of note that there are great differences in the bulk density and structural composition of soils in dependence on conditions of soil-climatic zones. In the steppe zone the soils with optimal bulk density in the plough layer (1.0-1.2 g/cm3) are prevailed among ordinary chernozems, the soils characterized by the bulk density equaled to 1.25-1.35 g/cm3 are dominated among southern chernozems in Pre-Caucasus region. In the dry steppe zone the chestnut soils with the bulk density of 1.30-1.40 g/cm3 and the light-chestnut soils with the permissible (1.35-1.45 g/cm3) and critical (>1.45 g/cm3) bulk density are widespread. The plough layer of soils within every soil-climatic zone reveals identical agrophysical properties thanks to management practices, which meet requirements of cultivated crops. Standards for changes in soil physical properties can serve as a base for estimating the recent physical status of soils under crop and for elaborating regional systems of maintenance and reproduction of the soil fertility.

Key words: standards, bulk density, structure, overcompaction, chernozem, chestnut, light-chestnut soils

Оценка влагообеспеченности растений
Н. А. Муромцев

ESTIMATE OF PLANT WATER SUPPLY

N.A. Muromtsev

V.V. Dokuchae Soil Science Instituteof Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Pyzheskii, 7

Peculiar water behavior in the “terrestrial air – vegetation cover – soil” system has been determined using the water potential. It is shown that the water potential in soil and plant leaves as well as its changes in the “soil-plant” system and relative transpiration are closely interacted being functionally dependent on each other. It is evident that every group of plants (gygrophytes, mesophytes and xerophytes) is characterized by a definite narrow interval of the soil water potential, in the range of which relative transpiration cannot be lower than the optimum (1.0-0.9). This interval doesn’t depend on soil properties and meteorological conditions and may be used as an optimal criterion for water supply of plants.

Key words:  water potential, relative transpiration, minimum field capacity, water supply of plants.

Микроэлементы в водных экосистемах реки Амур
Н. П. Чижикова, С. Е. Сиротский,  Г. В. Харитонова, Е. В. Уткина

MICROELEMENTS IN WATER ECOSYSTEMS OF THE AMUR RIVER

N.P. Chizhikova1, S.Ye. Sirotsky2, G.V. Kharitonova2, Ye.V. Utkina2

1V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences,119017, Moscow,Pyzhevskii, 7. 2Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, 680000,Khabarovsk,Kim-Yu-Chen,, 65
е-mail: gkharitonova@mail.ru Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript

Under consideration is the microelement composition of the “water – bottom sediments – algai – macrophytes – ichthyofauna” system in the Amur river. Minimum and maximum concentration of microelements have been determined in separate components of this system. It is shown that in biological objects the content of microelements reveals decreasing in the following order: algai > macrophytes > iththyofauna. The algai should be considered as the most informative biological object characterized by accumulation of microelements in the Amur ecosystem. Accumulation of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in bottom sediments is associated with the formation of surface complexes of metal cations with clay minerals and their accumulation by diatom algai.

Key words: ecosystem, bottom sediments, contamination, microelements, diatom algai

Роль растворимых солей в агрегации  глинистых минералов
Н. П. Чижикова, Г. В. Харитонова, Н. С. Коновалова

ROLE OF SOLUBLE SALTS IN AGGREGATION OF CLAY MINERALS

 N.P. Chizhikova1, G.V. Kharitonova2, N.S. Konovalova3

1V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute of Russian Academy Agricultural Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii, 7
2
Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, 680000, Khabarovsk, Kim-Yu-Chen, 65
e-mail: gkharitonova@mail.ru Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript
3
Institute of Tektonics and Geophysics, 680000, Khabarovsk, Volochaevskaya, 146

Methods of optical and electronic microscopy were employed to study the behavior of clay minerals (smektite and kaolinite) under the influence of soluble salts. Their interaction leads to the formation of clay-salt microaggregates. The particle packing, size, form and optical properties of such microaggregates are largely dependent on the mineral nature and properties of salts taking part in aggregation. 

Key words: aggregation, clay minerals, salt solutions, optical and electronic microscopy


 

Концепция «гибкого» подхода к оценке ориентировочно допустимой концентрации тяжелых металлов и металлоидов в почве
Ю. Н. Водяницкий

THE CONCEPT OF VERSIABLE APPROACH TO ESTIMATE the TENTATIVELY PERMISSIBLE CONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS AND METALLOIDS IN SOIL

Yu.N. Vodyanitsky

V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii, 7

In Russia the fixed values of heavy metal/metalloid concentration are applicable as a tentatively permissible concentration (TPC). The principle of versiable approach to TPC estimate SanPiNom offered in 1987 and developed in the Netherlands in 1997 allows eliminating some defects of fixed TPC based upon a sum of the background metal content and the critical permissible addition. At the current stage of its development such an approach doesn’t take into consideration the peculiar behaviour of pollutants in soil, although the transition from fixed standards to versiable ones is of great importance. A versiable approach is urgently needed to estimate TPC taking into account the inert fraction of pollutants. It becomes evident that the soil contamination by heavy metals seems higher to a considerable extent in case of its estimating by a versiable TPC criterion.  The latter taking into consideration the content of inert fraction in soil may be possible and efficient when the systems of chemical extraction of high-contaminated soils will be modified and improved.

Key words: tentatively permisspble concentration, heavy metals, soil contamination

Металлы в загрязненном нефтью торфе (Западная Сибирь)
Ю. Н. Водяницкий, А. Т. Савичев, С. Я. Трофимов, Е. А. Шишконакова

METALS IN THE OIL-POLLUTED PEAT OF WESTERN SIBERIA

Yu.N. Vodyanitsky1, A.T. Savichev2, S.Ya. Trofimov3, Ye. A.Shishkonakova1

1V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii 7,
2
Institute of Geologyof Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017 Moscow, Pyzhevskii 7
3
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Department of Soil Science, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory

The study of heavy metals in the oil-polluted peat is of double importance. First, being important from diagnostic viewpoint, it is an efficient and simple method for montoring of the soil status. Second, from ecological point of view it is very important to forecast the peatland state as an element of the biocoenosis. All the elements-pollutants in contaminated peats should be divided into two groups. One group (Ti, V, Cr, Ni, Zr, Ba, Y, La, Ce, Nd) is accumulated in the upper bituminous layer of peat. On the contrary, the other elements (chlor halogen and such metals as Ca, Mn, Zn, Cu, Sr) enable to move into the oil stratum together with light hydrocarbon fractions. To fix the most labile metals (Cu, Zn), artificial geochemical barriers are required to prevent accumulation of these pollutants in ground waters and open water reservoirs.

Key words: contamination by oil, pollutants, peat

Засоленные почвы восточной  части Ергеней
А. Ф. Новикова, М. В. Конюшкова

SALINE SOILS IN THE EASTERN PART OF ERGENI

A.F. Novikova, M.V. Konyushkova

V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii 7

Based upon the field investigations conducted within 2005-2009 the chemical properties of solonetz soils in the eastern part of Ergeni in Kalmykia Republic have been characterized in detail. The share of soils salinized in the upper 1m layer accounts for 50-75%, the share of solonetz soils – 10-25%, being estimated in some places as 25-50 to 50-75% from the entire territory. The solonetz soils are regarding as surface-saline. They can be strongly salinized at the surface of 20 cm (shallow solonetz) or at a depth of 50 cm (deep solonetz). In light-chestnut soils the salinity occurs at a depth of 1m and rarely at a depth of 50 cm. As regards the salt composition the solonetz soils are chloride and chloride-sulphate but light-chestnut soils are sulphate varieties.

Key words: salinity, solonetzicity, solonetz, light-chestnut soils, alkalinity

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